Your cardiologist will first want to rule out a heart attack by conducting a resting ECG followed by a stress test.

An alternative to the stress test is a CT coronary angiogram (CTA), an X-ray based method which allows direct visualisation of the heart arteries to see if there is any narrowing or blockages or cholesterol deposits.

If the presence of blockages is confirmed, we usually follow up with an invasive coronary angiogram or cardiac catheterisation. This is the most direct and accurate way of visualising the coronary arteries and if the blockages are confirmed, an angioplasty and stenting can be done immediately or, if the disease is severe, you may be offered coronary bypass surgery.