Electrophysiology studies (EPS) test the electrical activity of your heart to find where an arrhythmia (abnormal heartbeat) is coming from. These results can help you and your doctor decide how your condition will be treated.

An extension of EPS, catheter ablation is a non-surgical technique where a thin electrode catheter (a specially insulated electrical wire) is used to localise the abnormal site in the heart causing the arrhythmia. Radiofrequency energy is then delivered via the catheter to ablate (or destroy) it. .



A pacemaker sends electrical pulses to your heart to keep it beating regularly and not too slowly. Having a pacemaker can significantly improve your quality of life if you have problems with a slow heart rate. It is a common treatment that can be lifesaving for some people.

Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD)

Similar to a pacemaker, this device sends a larger electrical shock to the heart that essentially “reboots” it to get it pumping again. Some devices contain both a pacemaker and an ICD. ICDs are often used as a preventative treatment for people thought to be at risk of cardiac arrest at some point in the future. If the ICD senses the heart is beating at a potentially dangerous abnormal rate, it will deliver an electrical shock to the heart. This often helps return the heart to a normal rhythm. The ICD’s pacing lead may be implanted along a vein or, in newer models, under the skin.

Cardiac Resynchronisation Therapy (CRT-D)

In this procedure, electrodes are inserted in the left and right ventricles of the heart (pumping chambers of the heart), as well as, on occasion, the right atrium (top chamber of the right heart), to treat severe heart failure by coordinating the function of the left and right ventricles via a pacemaker, a small device inserted into the interior chest wall.